Preface.Unit 1: WRITING EFFECTIVE PARAGRAPHS.Each chapter in Unit 1 includes “Spotlight on Reading and Writing,” end-of-chapter features Chapter Highlights and Exploring Online.1. Exploring the Writing Process.A. The Writing Process. B. Subject, Audience, and Purpose. C. Guidelines for Submitting Written Work.2. Prewriting to Generate Ideas.A. Freewriting. B. Brainstorming. C. Clustering. D. Keeping a Journal.3. Developing Effective Paragraphs.A. Defining the Paragraph and the Topic Sentence. B. Narrowing the Topic and Writing the Topic Sentence. C. Generating Ideas for the Body of the Paragraph. D. Selecting and Dropping Ideas. E. Arranging Ideas in a Plan or an Outline. F. Writing and Revising the Paragraph. G. Proofreading and Writing the Final Draft.4. Improving Your Paragraphs.A. More Work on Arranging Ideas: Coherence. B. More Work on Revising: Exact and Concise Language. C. Turning Assignments into Paragraphs.5. Thinking Through Paragraph Patterns, Part 1.A. Illustration. B. Narration. C. Description. D. Process. E. Comparison/Contrast. 6 Thinking Through Paragraph Patterns, Part 2A. Classification. B. Cause and Effect. C. Definition. D. Persuasion 7. Moving from Paragraph to Essay.A. Defining the Essay and the Thesis Statement. B. The Process of Writing an Essay.8. Proofreading to Correct Your Personal Errors.A. Identifying and Tracking Your Personal Error Patterns. B. Proofreading Strategies. Unit 1. Writing Assignments.Unit 1. Review.Unit 1. Writers’ Workshop: Discuss Your Name.Unit 2: WRITING COMPLETE SENTENCES.Each chapter in Unit 2 includes “Spotlight on Reading and Writing,” end-of-chapter features Chapter Highlights, Proofreading Strategy, Writing and Proofreading Assignments, Chapter Review, and Exploring Online.9. Subjects and Verbs.A. Defining and Spotting Subjects. B. Spotting Singular and Plural Subjects. C. Spotting Prepositional Phrases. D. Defining and Spotting Action Verbs. E. Defining and Spotting Linking Verbs. F. Spotting Verbs of More Than One Word.10. Avoiding Sentence Fragments.A. Writing Sentences with Subjects and Verbs. B. Writing Sentences with Complete Verbs. C. Completing the Thought.Unit 2. Writing Assignments.Unit 2. Review.Unit 2. Writers’ Workshop: Discuss an Event That Influenced You.Unit 3: USING VERBS EFFECTIVELY.Each chapter in Unit 3 includes “Spotlight on Reading and Writing,” end-of-chapter features Chapter Highlights, Proofreading Strategy, Writing and Proofreading Assignments, Chapter Review, and Exploring Online11. Present Tense (Agreement).A. Defining Agreement. B. Verbs in the Present Tense: TO BE, TO HAVE, and TO DO (+ NOT).C. Changing Subjects to Pronouns. D. Practice in Agreement. E. Special Problems in Agreement.12. Past Tense.A. Regular Verbs in the Past Tense. B. Irregular Verbs in the Past Tense. C. Troublesome Verb in the Past Tense: TO BE. D. Review.13. The Past Participle in Action.A. Past Participles of Regular Verbs. B. Past Participles of Irregular Verbs. C. Using the Present Perfect Tense. D. Using the Past Perfect Tense. E. Using the Passive Voice. F. Using Past Participles as Adjectives.14. Progressive Tenses (TO BE + -ING Verb Form).A. Defining and Writing the Present Progressive Tense. B. Defining and Writing the Past Progressive Tense. C. Using the Progressive Tenses. D. Avoiding Incomplete Progressives.15. Fixed-Form Helping Verbs and Verb Problems.A. Defining and Spotting the Fixed-Form Helping Verbs. B. Using the Fixed-Form Helping Verbs. C. Using CAN and COULD. D. Using WILL and WOULD. E. Writing Infinitives. F. Revising Double Negatives.Unit 3. Writing Assignments.Unit 3. Review.Unit 3. Writers’ Workshop: Tell a Family Story.Unit 4: JOINING IDEAS TOGETHER.Each chapter in Unit 4 includes end-of-chapter features “Spotlight on Reading and Writing,” Chapter Highlights, Proofreading Strategy, Writing and Proofreading Assignments, Chapter Review, and Exploring Online.16. Coordination.17. Subordination.A. Defining and Using Subordinating Conjunctions. B. Punctuating Subordinating Conjunctions.18. Avoiding Run-Ons and Comma Splices.19. Semicolons and Conjunctive Adverbs.A. Defining and Using Semicolons. B. Defining and Using Conjunctive Adverbs. C. Punctuating Conjunctive Adverbs.20. Relative Pronouns.A. Defining and Using Relative Pronouns. B. Punctuating Ideas Introduced by WHO, WHICH, or THAT.21. -ING Modifiers.A. Using-ING Modifiers. B. Avoiding Confusing Modifiers.Unit 4. Writing Assignments. Unit 4. Review.Unit 4. Writers’ Workshop: Describe a Detour off the Main Highway.Unit 5: CHOOSING THE RIGHT NOUN, PRONOUN, ADJECTIVE, ADVERB, OR PREPOSITION.Each chapter in Unit 5 includes end-of-chapter features “Spotlight on Reading and Writing,” Chapter Highlights, Proofreading Strategy, Writing and Proofreading Assignments, Chapter Review, and Exploring Online.22. Nouns.A. Defining Singular and Plural. B. Signal Words: Singular and Plural. C. Signal Words with OF.23. Pronouns.A. Defining Pronouns and Antecedents. B. Referring to Indefinite Pronouns. C. Referring to Special Singular Constructions. D. Referring to Collective Nouns. E. Avoiding Vague and Repetitious Pronouns. F. Using Pronouns as Subjects, Objects, and Possessives. G. Choosing the Correct Pronoun Case. H. Using Pronouns with -SELF and-SELVES.24. Adjectives and Adverbs.A. Defining and Writing Adjectives and Adverbs. B. A Troublesome Pair: GOOD/WELL. C. Writing Comparatives. D. Writing Superlatives. E. Troublesome Comparatives and Superlatives. F. Demonstrative Adjectives: THIS/THAT and THESE/THOSE.25. Prepositions.A. Defining and Working with Prepositional Phrases. B. Troublesome Prepositions: IN, ON, and LIKE. C. Prepositions in Common Expressions.Unit 5. Writing Assignments.Unit 5. Review.Unit 5. Writers’ Workshop: Tell How Someone Changed Your Life.Unit 6: REVISING FOR CONSISTENCY AND PARALLELISM.Each chapter in Unit 6 includes end-of-chapter features Chapter Highlights, Proofreading Strategy, Writing and Proofreading Assignments, Chapter Review, and Exploring Online.26. Consistent Tense.27. Consistent Person.28. Parallelism.A. Writing Parallel Constructions. B. Using Parallelism for Special Effects.Unit 6. Writing Assignments.Unit 6. Review.Unit 6. Writers’ Workshop: Shift Your Audience and Purpose.Unit 7: MASTERING MECHANICS.Each chapter in Unit 7 includes end-of-chapter elements Chapter Highlights, Proofreading Strategy, Writing and Proofreading Assignments, Chapter Review, and Exploring Online.29. Capitalization.30. Commas.A. Commas After Items in a Series. B. Commas After Introductory Phrases. C. Commas for Direct Address. D. Commas to Set Off Appositives. E. Commas for Parenthetical Expressions. F. Commas for Dates. G. Commas for Addresses. H. Commas for Coordination and Subordination.31. Apostrophes.A. Using the Apostrophe for Contractions. B. Defining the Possessive. C. Using the Apostrophe to Show Possession (in Words That Do Not Already End in-S). D. Using the Apostrophe to Show Possession (in Words That Already End in -S).32. Direct and Indirect Quotations.A. Defining Direct and Indirect Quotations. B. Punctuating Simple Direct Quotations. C. Punctuating Split Quotations. D. Ending Direct Quotations.33. Putting Your Proofreading Skills to Work.Unit 7. Writing Assignments.Unit 7. Review.Unit 7. Writers’ Workshop: Explain a Cause or an Effect.Unit 8: IMPROVING YOUR SPELLING.Each chapter in Unit 8 includes “Spotlight on Reading and Writing,” end-of-chapter features Chapter Highlights, Proofreading Strategy, Writing and Proofreading Assignments, Chapter Review, and Exploring Online.34. Spelling.A. Suggestions for Improving Your Spelling. B. Computer Spell Checkers. C. Spotting Vowels and Consonants. D. Doubling the Final Consonant (in Words of One Syllable). E. Doubling the Final Consonant (in Words of More Than One Syllable). F. Dropping or Keeping the Final E. G. Changing or Keeping the Final Y. H. Choosing IE or EI. I. Commonly Misspelled Words.35. Look-Alikes/Sound-Alikes.Unit 8. Writing Assignments.Unit 8. Review.Unit 8. Writers’ Workshop: Examine Positive (or Negative) Values.Unit 9: READING SELECTIONS AND QUOTATION BANK.Reading Selections. Effective Reading Strategies for the Writer. Diane Sawyer, “Daring to Dream Big.” Leonard Pitts, “Put the Brakes on Texting while Driving.” Sherman Alexie, “Superman and Me.” John Quinones, “Heroes Everywhere.” Maya Angelou, “Mrs. Flowers.” Scott Smith, “A Day without Media: Heaven or Hell?” Dave Barry, “Another Road Hog with Too Much Oink.” M.P. Dunleavey, “Buy Yourself Less Stuff.” Richard Rodgriguez, “Stuff.” Courtland Milloy, “The Gift.” Amy Chua, “Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior.” Beve Stevenson, RN, BN, “A Day in the Life of an Emergency Room Nurse.” Ana Veciana-Suarez, “You Can Take This Job and...Well, It Might Surprise You.” Susan Cain, “Introverts Run the World—Quietly.” Martin Lindstrom, “(Illusions of) Freshness for Sale.” Melissa Seligman, “One Husband, Two Kids, Three Deployments.” Michaela Angela Davis, “Quitting Hip Hop.” Liza Grossman, “The Hidden Life of Bottled Water.” Daniel Goleman, “Emotional Intelligence.”Quotation Bank.APPENDIX 1: Parts of Speech Review.APPENDIX 2: Some Guidelines for Students of English as a Second Language.Acknowledgments.Index.Index of Rhetorical Modes.Index to the Readings.Rhetorical Index to the Readings.