VOLUME IPart I: THE ANCIENT WORLD.1. The Near East.Epic of Gilgamesh: Mesopotamian Protest against Death -- Poem of the Righteous Sufferer: Forsaken by the Gods. Mesopotamian Concepts of Justice -- Code of Hammurabi. Divine Kingship in Egypt -- Hymns to the Pharaohs; Guidelines for the Ruler. Religious Inspiration of Akhenaten -- Hymn to Aton. Empire Builders: The Assyrians and Persians -- Inscription of Tiglath-Pileser I; Fusion of Cultural Tradition in Persian Empire. The Myth-Making Outlook of the Ancient Near East -- Lament for Ur.2. The Hebrews.Hebrew Cosmogony and Anthropology -- Genesis. Human Sinfulness -- Genesis, The Origins of Sin. The Covenant and the Ten Commandments -- Exodus, The Covenant; Exodus, The Ten Commandments. Humaneness of Hebrew Law -- Exodus, Crime and Punishment; Leviticus, Neighbor and Community; Deuteronomy, Judges, Witnesses, and Justice. God's Greatness and Human Dignity -- Psalm 8; Psalm 104. The Age of Classical Prophecy -- Amos and Isaiah, Social Justice; Isaiah, Peace and Humanity.3. The Greeks.Homer: The Educator of Greece -- Homer, The Iliad. Lyric Poetry -- Sappho, Love, Passion, and Friendship. The Emancipation of Thought from Myth -- Hippocrates, The Sacred Disease: The Separation of Medicine from Myth; Thucydides, Method of Historical Inquiry; Critias, Religion as a Human Invention. Human Excellence and Weakness: Humanism and Hubris -- Pindar, The Pursuit of Excellence; Aeschylus, Hubris. The Persian Wars -- Herodotus, The Histories. Athenian Greatness -- Thucydides, The Funeral Oration of Pericles. The Status of Women in Classical Greek Society -- Euripedes, Medea; Aristophanes, Lysistrata. The Peloponnesian War -- Thucydides, The Melian Dialogue and the Revolution at Corcyra. Socrates: The Rational Individual -- Plato, The Apology. Plato: The Philosopher-King -- Plato, Epistle VII; Plato, The Republic. Aristotle: Ethical and Political Thought -- Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics; Aristotle, Politics. Hellenistic Culture: Rationalism, Universalism, and Individualism -- Plutarch, Cultural Fusion; Plutarch, Alexander and Cultural Fusion; Epicurus, Self-Sufficiency; Philo Alexandria, Jewish Appreciation of Greek Culture and Synthesis of Reason Revelation.4. The Roman Republic.Rome's March to World Empire -- Polybius, The Roman Army; Frontinus, Enforcing Discipline. The Punic Wars -- Livy, The Second Punic War: The Threat from Hannibal; Appian of Alexandria, The Third Punic War: The Destruction of Carthage. The Spread of Greek Philosophy to Rome -- Lucretius, Denunciation of Religion; Cicero, Advocate of Stoicism; Cato the Elder, Hostility to Greek Philosophy. Roman Slavery -- Diodorous Siculus, Slaves: Torment and Revolt; Appian of Alexandria, The Revolt of Spartacus. Women in Republican Society -- Quintus Lucretius Vespillo, A Funeral Eulogy for a Roman Wife. The Decline of the Republic -- Plutarch, Tiberius Gracchus; Cicero, Justifying Caesar's Assassination; Dio Cassius, In Defense of Caesar and Monarchy; Velleius Paterculus, The Triumph of Octavian; Sallust, Moral Deterioration.5. The Roman Empire.The Imperial Office -- Tacitus, The Imposition of One-Man Rule. Imperial Culture -- Virgil, The Aeneid; Ovid, Art of Love; Quintilian, The Education of an Orator; Juvenal, The Satires. Roman Stoicism -- Seneca, Stoic Humanitarianism; Marcus Aurelius, Meditations; Musonius Rufus, Enlightened Lectures on Women. Roman Law -- Justinian, Corpus Iuris Civilis. The Roman Peace -- Aelius Aristides, The Roman Oration: The Blessings of Pax Romana; Tacitus, The Other Side of The Pax Romana; Josephus, "nor does fear frighten them." Third-Century Crisis -- Dio Cassius, Caracalla's Extortions; Petition to the Emperor Philip. The Demise of Rome -- Ammianus Marcellinus, The Battle of Adrianople; Salvian, Political and Social Injustice; Saint Jerome, The Fate of Rome; Pope Gregory I, The End of Roman Glory.6. Early Christianity.The Teachings of Jesus -- The Gospel According to Saint Mark; The Gospel According to Saint Matthew. The Dead Sea Scrolls -- Josephus, The Essenes. Christianity and Greco-Roman Learning -- Tertullian, What Has Jerusalem To Do With Athens?; Clement of Alexandria, In Defense of Greek Learning; Saint Augustine, Appropriating Pagan Learning and Institutions for Christian Ends. The Persecutions -- The Martyrdom of Blandina. Monastic Life -- Saint Benedict of Nursia, The Benedictine Rule. Christianity and Society -- Lactantius, Acquisitiveness as the Source of Evil; Justin Martyr, Christian Morality; Saint Benedict of Nursia, The Christian Way of Life; The Apostle Paul, The Submissive Role of Women; A Bishop's Sermon, Breaking the Vow of Virginity. Jews in the Era of Early Christianity -- Saint John Chrysostom, Christian Demonization of Jews; Rabbinic Judaism, Ethical Concerns. The Christian Worldview; Saint Augustine, The City of God.Part II: THE MIDDLE AGES.7. The Early Middle Ages.Islam -- The Koran. Legal Texts and Decrees: Restrictions on Dhimmis. Jihad -- Sayings Attributed to the Prophet; Ibn Taymiyyah, The Religious and Moral Doctrine of Jihad. Islam and Greek Learning -- Avicenna, Love of Learning; Rhazes, Muslim Medicine. Converting the Germanic Peoples to Christianity -- Bede, History of the English Church and People; Einhard, Forcible Conversion under Charlemagne. The Transmission of Learning -- Cassiodorous, The Monk as Scribe. The Carolingian Renaissance -- Einhard, Charlemagne's Appreciation of Learning; Charlemagne, An Injunction to Monasteries to Cultivate Letters. The Feudal Lord -- Galbert of Bruges, Commendation and the Oath of Fealty; Bishop Fulbert of Cartres, Obligations of Lords and Vassals; Dhouda, Loyalty to Lord and King. The Burdens of Serfdom -- Bishop Adalbero of Laon, The Tripartite Society; Manorial Justice; William of Juieges and Wace, Failed Rebellion.8. The High and Late Middle Ages.The Revival of Trade and the Growth of Towns -- How to Succeed in Business; Ordinances of the Guild Merchants of Southampton. The Lure of Combat -- Bertran de Born, "For no man is accounted good/Till blows he's given and withstood"; Geoffroi de Charny, Deeds of Arms Bring the Highest Honor. Medieval Entertainment -- William Fitz-Stephen, Sports in Medieval London. Papal Supremacy -- Pope Gregory VII, The Dictatus Papae; Pope Innocent III, "Royal Power Derives its Dignity from the Pontifical Authority." The Crusades -- Robert the Monk, Appeal of Urban II to the Franks; William of Tyre, The Capture of Jerusalem; James of Vitry, The Remission of Sins and the Reward of Eternal Life. Religious Dissent -- Thomas Aquinas, Death for Unrepentant Heretics; Emperor Frederick II, Punishing Heretics; Peter of les Vaux-Cernay, Exterminating the Cathars. Medieval Learning: Synthesis of Reason and Christian Faith -- Adelard of Barth: A Questioning Spirit; Peter Abelard, Inquiry into Divergent Views of Church Fathers; Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica. Medieval Universities -- Geoffrey Chaucer, An Oxford Cleric; A Wandering Scholar, "Am Driven By Poverty To Madness"; Jacques de Vitry, Ethnic Conflicts at the University of Paris. The Jews in the Middle Ages -- Albert of Aix-la-Chapelle, Massacre of the Jews of Mainz; Pope innocent III, A Decree on the Jews; The Libel of Ritual Murder; Philip II Augustus, Expulsion of the Jews from France; Maimonides, Jewish Learning. Troubadour Love Songs -- Love as Joyous, Painful, and Humorous. The Status of Women in Medieval Society -- Jacopone da Todi, Praise of the Virgin Mary "O Thou Mother, Fount Of Love"; Christine de Pisan, The City of Ladies. Sexual Nonconformity: Satan's Lures -- Robert of Flamborough, Prohibition of Sexual Sins; Peter Damian, Condemnation of Homosexuality. Medieval Contributions to the Tradition of Liberty -- John of Salisbury, Policratus: A Defense Of Tyrannicide; The Magna Carta. The Fourteenth Century: An Age of Adversity -- Giovanni Boccaccio, The Black Death; Jean de Venette, Extremist Behavior During the Plague; Sir John Froissart, The Peasant Revolt of 1381; John Bromyard, Virulent Denunciation of the Rich and Powerful. The Medieval Church in Crisis -- Marsilius of Padua, Attack on the Worldly Power of the Church. The Medieval Worldview -- Lothario dei Segni (Pope Innocent III), On the Misery of the Human Condition; Andreas Gryphius, "The Vanity of this World"; Dante Alighieri, The Divine Comedy.Part III: EARLY MODERN EUROPE.9. The Renaissance.The Humanists' Fascination with Antiquity -- Petrarch, The Father of Humanism; Leonardo Bruni, Study of Greek Literature and a Humanist Educational Program; Petrus Paulus Vergerius, The Importance of Liberal Studies; Lorenzo de' Medici, The Pursuit of Fame and Glory. Human Dignity -- Pico della Mirandola, Oration on the Dignity of Man. Individualism -- Montaigne, Self-Examination. The Ideal Gentleman -- Baldassare Castiglione, The Book of the Courtier. Break with Medieval Political Theory -- Niccolo Machiavelli, The Prince. Renaissance Art -- The Genius of Leonardo da Vinci; Giorgio Vasari, The Genius of Michelangelo. Learned Renaissance Women -- Moderata Fonte, The Worth of Women. The Spread of the Renaissance -- Francois Rabelais, Celebration of the Worldly Life; William Shakespeare, Human Nature and the Human Condition.10. The Reformation.Late Medieval Attempts to Reform the Church -- Thomas á Kempis, The Imitation of Christ. A Catholic Critic of the Church -- Desiderius Erasmus, In Praise of Folly. The Lutheran Reformation -- Martin Luther, Critique of Church Doctrines; Ulrich von Hutten, Resentment of Rome. The German Peasants' Revolt -- The Twelve Articles; Martin Luther, Against the Thievish, Murderous Hordes of Peasants. Luther and the Jews -- Martin Luther, On the Jews and Their Lies. The Calvinist Reformation -- John Calvin, The Institutes of the Christian Religion. The Catholic Response to Protestantism -- Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent. Religious Persecution -- The Persecution Of Anabaptists: The Examination of Elizabeth Dirks; Menno Simons, An Anabaptist Rejection of the Use of Force.11. Early Modern Society and Politics.Spanish Oppression of Amerindians -- Juan Lopez de Palacios Rubios, Justifying Spanish Domination of Amerindians; Bartolome de Las Casas, The Tears of the Indians. Toward the Modern Economy: The Example of Holland -- William Carr, The Dutch East India Company. The Jews of Spain and Portugal: Expulsion, Forced Conversion, Inquisition -- Andres Bernaldez, An Early Account of the Spanish Inquisition; Damiao de Gois, The Forced Conversion of Portuguese Jews. The Atlantic Slave Trade -- Seventeenth-Century Slave Traders, Buying and Transporting Africans; John Newton, Thoughts Upon the African Slave Trade; Malachy Postlethwayt, Slavery Defended. John Wesley, Slavery Attacked. The Witch Craze -- Heinrich Kramer and Jakob Sprenger, The Hammer of Witches; Friedrich Spee, The Ordeal of an Accused Witch; Johannes Junius, A Confession of Witchcraft Explained. Absolutism -- Duc de Saint-Simon, Louis XIV's Spies; Bishop Jacques-Benigne Bossuet, Justifying Rule by Divine Right; James I, A Speech to Parliament. A Secular Defense of Absolutism -- Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan. Constitutional Resistance to Royal Absolutism -- Philippe du Plessis-Mornay, Defense of Liberty Against Tyrants; The Triumph of Constitutional Monarchy in England: The Glorious Revolution; The English Declaration of Rights.12. The Scientific Revolution.Galileo: Confirming the Copernican System -- Galileo Condemned by the Inquisition. Advocacy Of Experimental Science -- Prophet of Modern Experimental Science; William Harvey, The Circulation of the Blood; Herman Boerhaave, A New Method of Chemistry. The Autonomy of the Mind -- Rene Descartes, Discourse On Method. The Mechanical Universe -- Isaac Newton, Principia Mathematica. The Limitations of Science -- Blaise Pascal, Pensées.13. The Enlightenment.The Enlightenment Outlook -- Immanuel Kant, "What Is Enlightenment?". Enlightenment Political Thought -- John Locke, Second Treatise on Government; Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence; Montesquieu, The Spirit of Laws; Jean Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract; Thomas Paine, Rights of Man. Attack on Religion -- Voltaire, A Plea for Tolerance and Reason; Thomas Paine, The Age of Reason; Baron d'Holbach, "Religion is a mere castle in the air". Epistemology -- John Locke, Essay Concerning Human Understanding; Claude-Adrien Helvetius, Essays on the Mind and a Treatise on Man. Compendium of Knowledge -- Denis Diderot, Encyclopedia. Humanitarianism -- Caesare Beccaria, Condemning Torture; John Howard, State of Prisons in England and Wales; Denis Diderot, Encyclopedia: "Men and Their Liberty Are Not Objects of Commerce. . . . ". Literature as Satire: Critiques of European Society -- Voltaire, Candide; Montesquieu, The Persian Letters. Madam du Chatelet: A Woman of Brilliance -- Madame du Chatelet, An Appeal for Female Education. On the Progress of Humanity -- Marquis de Condorcet, Progress of the Human Mind.