VOLUME IIPart I: EARLY MODERN EUROPE.1. The Rise of Modernity.The Humanists' Fascination with Antiquity -- Petrarch, The Father of Humanism; Leonardo Bruni, Study of Greek Literature and a Humanist Educational Program; Petrus Paulus Vergerius, The Importance of Liberal Studies. Break with Medieval Political Theory -- Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince. The Lutheran Reformation -- Martin Luther, Critique of Church Doctrines. European Expansion -- William Carr, The Dutch East India Company. The Atlantic Slave Trade -- John Newton, Thoughts Upon the African Slave Trade; Malachy Postlethwayt, Slavery Defended; John Wesley, Slavery Attacked. A Secular Defense of Absolutism -- Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan. The Triumph of Constitutional Monarchy in England: The Glorious Revolution -- The English Declaration of Rights.2. The Scientific Revolution.Galileo: Confirming the Copernican System -- Galileo Condemned by the Inquisition. Advocacy Of Experimental Science -- Prophet of Modern Experimental Science; William Harvey, The Circulation of the Blood; Herman Boerhaave, A New Method of Chemistry. The Autonomy of the Mind -- Rene Descartes, Discourse On Method. The Mechanical Universe -- Isaac Newton, Principia Mathematica. The Limitations of Science -- Blaise Pascal, Pensées.3. The Enlightenment.The Enlightenment Outlook -- Immanuel Kant, "What Is Enlightenment?". Enlightenment Political Thought -- John Locke, Second Treatise on Government; Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence; Montesquieu, The Spirit of Laws; Jean Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract; Thomas Paine, Rights of Man. Attack on Religion -- Voltaire, A Plea for Tolerance and Reason; Thomas Paine, The Age of Reason; Baron d'Holbach, "Religion is a mere castle in the air". Epistemology -- John Locke, Essay Concerning Human Understanding; Claude-Adrien Helvetius, Essays on the Mind and a Treatise on Man. Compendium of Knowledge -- Denis Diderot, Encyclopedia. Humanitarianism -- Caesare Beccaria, Condemning Torture; John Howard, State of Prisons in England and Wales; Denis Diderot, Encyclopedia: "Men and Their Liberty Are Not Objects of Commerce. . . . ". Literature as Satire: Critiques of European Society -- Voltaire, Candide; Montesquieu, The Persian Letters. Madam du Chatelet: A Woman of Brilliance -- Madame du Chatelet, An Appeal for Female Education. On the Progress of Humanity -- Marquis de Condorcet, Progress of the Human Mind.Part II: MODERN EUROPE.4. Era of the French Revolution.Abuses of the Old Regime -- Arthur Young, Plight of the French Peasants; Emmanuel Sieyés, What Is the Third Estate?. The Role of the Philosophes -- Alexis de Tocqueville, Critique of the Old Regime. Liberty, Equality, Fraternity -- Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. Expansion of Human Rights -- Olympe de Gouges, Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen; Society of the Friends of Blacks, address to the national assembly in favor of the abolition of the slave trade; Petition of the Jews of Paris, Alsace, and Lorraine to the National Assembly, January 28, 1790. The Jacobin Regime -- Republic of Virtue; General Ligniéres Turreau, Uprising in the Vendée; The District of Saint-Quentin, De-Christianization. Napoleon: Destroyer and Preserver of the Revolution -- Napoleon Bonaparte, Leader, General, Tyrant, Reformer; Madame de Staël, Critic of Napoleon. 5. The Industrial Revolution.Early Industrialization -- Edward Baines, Britain's Industrial Advantages and the Factory System; Adam Smith, The Division Of Labor. The New Science of Political Economy -- Adam Smith, Against Government Intervention in the Economy; Thomas R. Mathus, On the Principle of Population. The Dark Side of Industrialization -- Sadler Commission, Report on Child Labor; James Phillips Kay, Moral and Physical Dissipation; Friedrich Engels, The Condition of the Working Class in England. Factory Discipline -- Factory Rules. The Capitalist Ethic -- Samuel Smiles, Self-Help and Thrift. Reformers -- Robert Owen, Ameliorating the Plight of the Poor.6. Romanticism, Reaction, Revolution.Romanticism -- Williams Wordsworth, Tables Turned; William Blake, Milton. Conservatism -- Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France; Klemens von Metternich, The Odious Ideas of the Philosophes; Joseph de Maistre, Errors of the Enlightenment. Liberalism -- Benjamin Constant, On the Limits of Popular Sovereignty; John Stuart Mill, On Liberty. Rise of Modern Nationalism -- Ernst Moritz Arndt, The War of Liberation; Giuseppe Mazzini, Young Italy. Repression -- Karlsbad Decrees. 1848: The Year of Revolutions -- Flora Tristan, "Workers, Your Condition . . . Is Miserable and Distressing"; Alexis de Tocqueville, The June Days; Carl Schurz, Revolution Spreads to the German States.7. Thought and Culture in an Age of Science and Industry.Realism in Literature -- Charles Dickens, Hard Times; Henrik Ibsen, A Doll's House. Theory of Evolution -- Charles Darwin, Natural Selection. The Socialist Revolution -- Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Communist Manifesto. The Evolution of Liberalism -- L.T. Hobhouse, Justification for State Intervention; Herbert Spencer, The Man Versus the State.8. Politics and Society, 1845-1914.The Irish Potato Famine -- Poulett Scrope, Evictions; Nicholas Cummins, The Famine in Skibbereen. The Lower Classes -- William Booth, In Darkest England and the Way Out; Henry Mayhew, Prostitution In Victorian London; M. I. Pokrovskaya, Working Conditions for Women in Russian Factories. Feminism and Antifeminism -- John Stuart Mill, The Subjection Of Women; Emmeline Pankhurst, "Why We Are Militant"; The Goncourt Brothers, On Female Inferiority; Almroth E. Wright, The Unexpected Case Against Women Suffrage. German Racial Nationalism -- Houston Stewart Chamberlain, The Importance of Race; Pan-German League, "There Are Dominant Races and Subordinate Races." Anti-Semitism: Regression to the Irrational -- Theodor Fritsch, Rules to Follow Regarding Jews; The Dreyfus Affair: The Henry Memorial; The Kishinev Pogrom, 1903; Theodor Herzl, The Jewish State.9. European Imperialism.The Spirit of British Imperialism -- Joseph Chamberlain, The British Empire: Colonial Commerce and "The White Man's Burden"; Karl Pearson, Social Darwinism: Imperialism Justified By Nature. European Rule in Africa -- Cecil Rhodes and Lo Bengula, "I Had Signed Away the Mineral Rights of My Whole Country"; Edmund Morel, The Black Man's Burden; Richard Meinertzhagen, An Embattled Colonial Officer in East Africa; German Brutality in Southwest Africa: Exterminating the Herero. Chinese Resentment of Western Imperialism -- The Boxer Rebellion. British Rule in India -- Lord Lytton, Speech to Calcutta Legislature, 1878; Jawaharlal Nehru, India's Resentment of the British. Imperialism Debated -- The Edinburgh Review, "We . . . Can Restore Order Where There Is Chaos, and Fertility Where There Is Sterility"; John Atkinson Hobson, An Early Critique of Imperialism.10. Modern Consciousness.The Overman and the Will to Power -- Friedrich Nietzsche, The Will To Power and The Antichrist. The Unconscious -- Sigmund Freud, Civilization and Its Discontents. The Political Potential of the Irrational -- Gustave Le Bon, Mass Psychology; Vilfredo Pareto, Politics and the Nonrational. Human Irrationality in the Modernish Novel -- Joseph Conrad, Heart Of Darkness.Part III: WESTERN CIVILIZATION IN CRISIS.11. World War I.Militarism -- Heinrich von Treitschke, The Greatness of War; Friedrich von Bernhardi, Germany and the Next War; Henri Massis and Alfred de Tarde, The Young People of Today. Pan Serbism: Nationalism and Terrorism -- The Black Hand; Baron von Giesl, Austrian Response to the Assassination. War as Celebration: The Mood in European Capitals -- Roland Dorgeles, Paris: "That Fabulous Day"; Stefan Zweig, Vienna: "The Rushing Feeling of Fraternity"; Philipp Schneidemann, Berlin: "The Hour We Yearned For"; Bertrand Russell, London "Average Men and Women were Delighted at the Prospect of War". The Horror of Trench Warfare -- British and German Combatants, the Battle of Somme; Siegfried Sassoon, "Base Details"; Wilfred Owen, "Disabled". Women at War -- Naomi Loughnan, Genteel Women in the Factories; Magda Trott, Opposition to Female Employment; Russian Women in Combat. The Ethnic Cleansing of Turkey's Armenian Minority -- Takhoui Levonian and Yevnig Adrouni, The Survivors Remember. The Paris Peace Conference -- Woodrow Wilson, The Idealistic View; Georges Clemenceau, French Demands for Security and Revenge. The Bolshevik Revolution -- V. I. Lenin, What Is to Be Done?; V. I. Lenin, The Call to Power. The War and European Consciousness -- D. H. Lawrence, Disillusionment; Ernst von Salomon, Brutalization of the Individual; Friedrich Wilhelm Heinz, The Persistent War Spirit; Erich Maria Remarque, The Lost Generation.12. Era of Totalitarianism.Socialist Condemnation of the Bolsheviks -- Proclamation of the Kronstadt Rebels; Karl Kautsky, "Socialism Has Already Suffered a Defeat". Modernize or Perish -- Joseph Stalin, The Hard Line. Forced Collectivization -- Lev Kopelev, Terror in the Countryside; Miron Dolot, Execution By Hunger. Shaping a New Society and a "New Man" -- A.O. Avdienko, The Cult of Stalin; Yevgeny Yevtushenko, Literature as Propaganda. Stalin's Terror -- Lev Razgon, True Stories; Anatoly Zhigulin, A "Cannabalistic Sport." The Rise of Italian Fascism -- Benito Mussolini, Fascist Doctrines. The Fledgling Weimar Republic -- Friedrich Junger, Antidemocratic Thoughts in the Weimar Republic; Konrad Heiden, The Ruinous Inflation, 1923; Heinrich Hauser, "With Germany's Unemployed." The Rise of Nazism -- Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf; Kurt G. W. Ludecke, The Demagogic Orator. The Leader-State -- Ernst Rudolf Huber, "The Authority of the Führer Is . . . All-Inclusive and Unlimited." The Nazification of Culture and Society -- Jakob Graf, Heredity and Racial Biology for Students; Louis P. Lochner, Book Burning; Stephen H. Roberts, The Nuremberg Rally, 1936. Persecution of the Jews -- The Nuremberg Laws: Depriving Jews of Civil Liberties; Ernst Heimer, Jew-Hatred in School Books; David Buffum, Night of the Broken Glass (Kristallnacht). The Anguish of the Intellectuals -- Johan Huizinga, In the Shadow of Tomorrow; Nicolas Berdyaev, Modern Ideologies at Variance with Christianity.13. World War II.Prescient Observers of Nazi Germany -- Horace Rumbold, "Pacifism Is the Deadliest of Sins"; George S. Messersmith, "The Nazis Were After . . . Unlimited Territorial Expansion." Remilitarization of the Rhineland -- William L. Shirer, Berlin Diary. The Anschluss, March 1938 -- Stefan Zweig, The World Of Yesterday. The Munich Agreement -- Neville Chamberlain, In Defense of Appeasement; Winston Churchill, "A Disaster of the First Magnitude". World War II Begins -- Adolf, Hitler, "Poland Will Be Depopulated and Settled With Germans." The Fall of France -- Heinz Guderian, "French Leadership . . . Could Not Grasp the Significance of the Tank in Mobile Warfare." The Battle of Britain -- Winston Churchill, "Blood Toil, Tears, and Sweat." Nazi Ideology and the German Military: The Indoctrination of the German Solider -- Nazi Tracts, Generals' Memorandums, Letters Home; Heinrich Himmler, The Racial Empire. Stalingrad: A Turning Point -- Anton Kuzmich Dragan, A Soviet Veteran Recalls; Joachim Wieder, Memories and Reassessments. The Holocaust -- Herman Graebe, Slaughter of Jews in Ukraine; Rudolf Hoess, Commandant of Auschwitz; Survivors, Concentration Camp Life and Death; Joseph Freeman, The Death March. Resistance in Warsaw -- Marek Edelman, The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, 1943; Taeusz Bor-Komorowski, The Warsaw Uprising, 1944. D-Day, June 6, 1944 -- Historical Division, U.S. War Department, Omaha Beachhead. The End of the Third Reich -- Nerin E. Gun, The Liberation of Dachau; Margaret Freyer, The Fire-Bombing of Dresden; Marie Neumann, "We're in the Hands of a Mob, Not Soldiers, and They're All Drunk Out of Their Minds; Adolf Hitler, Political Testament. The Defeat of Japan -- Veterans, The Battle of Iwo Jima.14. Europe: A New Era.The Aftermath in Germany -- Theodore H. White, "Germany in Ruins"; A German Expellee from Czechoslovakia, "Germans Were Driven Out of Their Homeland Like Dogs"; The Nuremberg Trials of Nazi War Criminals; Justice Robert H. Jackson, Closing Arguments for Convicting Nazi War Criminals. The Cold War -- George F. Kennan, The Policy of Containment. Communist Oppression -- Fens Jicai, China's Cultural Revolution: Communist Fanaticism; Teeda Butt Mam, Genocide in Cambodia: "It Takes a River of Ink to Write Our Stories." Resistance and Dissidence in Communist World -- Milovan Djilas, The New Class: An Analysis of the Communist System; Andor Heller, The Hungarian Revolution, 1956. The New Germany: Confronting the Past -- Hannah Vogt, The Burden of Guilt; Richard von Weizsacker, "We Seek Reconciliation." The Twilight of Imperialism -- Mahatma Gandhi on the Partition of India. The Speech by Premier Patrice Lumumba on Independence Day for the Congo; Declaration of Independence of the Republic of Vietnam, September 2, 1945.Part IV: THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD.15. The West in an Age of Globalism.The Collapse of Communism -- Vaclav Havel, The Failure of Communism. Transplanting Western Democracy in Non-Western Lands -- Fareed Zakaria, "Democracy Has Its Dark Sides." The Editors, The European Union: An Uncertain Future. The Editors, ISIS: Ideology, Appeal, Terrorism. The Editors, Islam in Europe: Failure of Assimilation. Female Oppression -- U.N. Secretary-General, Ending Violence Against Women: "The Systematic Domination of Women by Men. " The Taliban's War on Women -- A Persecuted Afghan Woman: "You come from a family of infidels." U.S. Department of State: Human Trafficking. Resurgence of Anti-Semitism -- U.S. State Department, Contemporary Global Anti-Semitism. In Defense of European Values -- Jacques Ellul, The Betrayal of the West.